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QOS 2024 Session Topics.

A. Stratospheric ozone science
Description: Stratospheric ozone is expected to recover to 1980s levels in the coming decades. Understanding the year-to-year variability to determine robust trend signals, and therefore identify ozone recovery, has for decades been one of the main points in ozone research. Recently, new research fields like high-altitude aircrafts or rockets and the possible modification of the stratosphere to counteract climate change, present additional factors that can influence stratospheric ozone levels and therefore the expected ozone recovery. This session is suited for studies looking at global and polar ozone trends and variability (including specific ozone recovery studies), studies analyzing episodic events such as the impacts of large-scale wildfires and volcanic eruptions (i.e. (i.e. Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai), and findings from recent field campaigns, both based on observations or model analyses. Additionally, modeling studies about the future projections of stratospheric ozone modifications (i.e. geoengineering), aircraft and rocket impacts, as well as the effects of solar particles are welcome in this session.

B. Ozone-depleting gases and related substances
Description:  Recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer is expected in coming decades as atmospheric concentrations of substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol continue to decline. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that the timescale for ozone-layer recovery may depend significantly on the amounts of ozone-depleting bromine and chlorine being added to the atmosphere from processes or chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. Examples include emissions arising from use of these chemicals as feedstocks, process agents (e.g., CCl4 and CFCs), or from by-production, emissions of short-lived gases (e.g., CH2Cl2), unreported production of controlled gases (CFC-11 and potentially other CFCs), and ongoing emissions from banks (e.g., from appliances in landfills, from existing appliances in buildings, during end-of-life destruction of materials and appliances). This session seeks to highlight new understanding of these emerging issues for ozone-depleting gases and also to highlight separate environmental impacts associated with the dramatic increase in use and emissions of long- and short-lived hydrofluorocarbons.

C. Tropospheric ozone science
Description: Tropospheric ozone has a harmful impact on human health and vegetation and is also an important greenhouse gas. Monitoring its concentration that is spatially and temporally highly variable, is therefore of great interest for the public. Furthermore, the detection of tropospheric ozone long-term trends is not only necessary because of its tropospheric harmful impact, but also to reconcile the differences between observed total and stratospheric ozone trends. This session will focus on the monitoring of tropospheric ozone distribution and trends (including but not limited to geostationary satellites), as well as in studies involving its precursors and their contribution to global or regional tropospheric ozone budget.

D. Ozone, Climate, and Meteorology
Description: Surface climate and weather are impacted by both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. The stratosphere is affected by increasing levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs), most particularly CO2, CH4 and N2O. As future levels of ozone depleting substances decrease, ozone changes will be increasingly driven by levels of these GHGs. In this session, we welcome presentations on (1) stratospheric driven changes of the tropospheric weather and surface climate on synoptic, sub-seasonal, seasonal, and decadal time scales, 2) impacts on the stratosphere of increasing levels of GHGs and other climate processes, and 3) meteorology and ozone connections.

E. Ozone monitoring and measurement techniques
Description: Ozone is a key atmospheric constituent playing important roles in both the stratosphere and the troposphere; it is therefore essential to monitor the long-term evolution of its abundance in the different vertical and zonal compartments of the atmosphere. In this session, we welcome presentations on (1) monitoring networks and their strategies to establish reliable long time-series of ozone measurements, (2) calibration methods and (3) the development of synergies between ground-based in-situ and remote sensing instruments as well as satellite sensors. Activities linked to observations on different platforms are expected as well as reports on relevant field campaigns. Presentations on long records (including those noting the 30th anniversary for IAGOS and 20th anniversaries for SCISAT, and Aura), emergent instruments, new monitoring networks and new research infrastructures are also expected. Future projects on ozone monitoring are encouraged.

F. Environmental and human health effects of atmospheric ozone and UV
Description: Both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone affect a wide range of environmental parameters, with direct and indirect adverse effects on human health, ecosystem functioning and food production. Changes in stratospheric ozone mediated through changes in surface ultraviolet radiation impact human and animal health, ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic) tropospheric ozone and more generally air quality. High levels of tropospheric ozone largely controlled by photochemical, physical and meteorological processes present a risk to public health and ecosystems. This session seeks contributions on surface UV long-term evolution as well as on ozone and UV impacts on human health and on ecosystems services and biodiversity, including agricultural production and crop yields.